Oldest Businessmen in History

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Kings and Generals’ historical animated documentary series on the history of Ancient civilizations and Mesopotamian civilizations continue with a video on the rise of Bronze Age trade practices. In this video, we will try to show how the business was conducted in Ancient Mesopotamia and Anatolia

Rise of Sumer: Cradle of Civilization:
Rise and Fall of the Akkadian Empire:
Amorite Kingdoms and the Sumerian Renaissance:
Rise of Babylon and Hammurabi:
Rise of the Neo-Assyrian Empire:
536 AD – Worst Year in History:
How Rome Conquered Greece:
Did the Trojan War Really Happen:
Ancient Greek Politics and Diplomacy:
Ancient Macedonia before Alexander the Great and Philip II:
Ancient Greek State in Bactria:
The Greco-Chinese War Over the Heavenly Horses:
Ancient Greek Kingdom in India:
Bosporan Kingdom:
Nomadic Cultures:

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Art: Simone Gonzalez
Animation: Waily Romero
Narration: Officially Devin (
Script: Matt Hollis

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Production Music courtesy of EpidemicSound

#Documentary #BronzeAge #Mesopotamia

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Comment (23)

  1. Tomorrow is my birthday. Having this job is the best gift ever. Thank you for supporting us, we appreciate it so much!

  2. Trade during Bronze Age, and especially during Late Bronze, is one of the most prolific period due to its interconnected routes and the complexity of its trade systems that were able to share the different cultural features across the region. Congrats for your work K&G, as a historian and keen on ancient history I can say that is sometimes difficult to find such a comparative analysis and well portrayed aspects of these amazing period through such a dynamic way of teaching. Keep going 💪💪💪

  3. For me the Bronze age is the most interesting period. We don`t learn anything about it at school. Thanks a lot for the information! 🙂

  4. judging by the numbers views, ppl just want to hear about envoys being beheaded…and then massive battles

  5. In my studies I have come to see that the Hittite's real history is the definitive evidence as to the utter & complete fabrication of "the old testament" & in the final conclusion proof that what is called the Torah was written by uninformed, plagiarizing, racists and amounts to nothing more than absolute Jewish Mythology with zero historical relevance. In my view the Hittites will in day be the final end to the role Jewish Mythology had on modern society. Just compare how Hittite laws were LITERALLY millennia ahead of Hebrew "divinely" inspired laws:
    "The state is concerned primarily with the preservation of law and order, and must therefore at the outset endeavor to set a limit to private vengeance and eventually to eliminate it altogether…
    Both version make a careful distinction between killing in anger and killing accidentally; but it is curious that the only case which we should describe as willful murder is mentioned in connexion with a merchant, who seems to be treated rather in a class by himself, and is associated with the motive of robbery. The absence of a specific clause dealing with murder has been noticed also in both the code of Hammurabi and in the Assyrian laws. The crime is treated at length in the Israelite code, but we see from such passages as Deuteronomy xix. 12 that the Hebrew judicial authority ties had nothing to do with the murderer except to hand him over to the vengeance of the go-el, the 'redeemer', i.e. the next of kin."
    [The Hittites, O.R. Gurney, 1966]
    I even assert that Hittite "Composition" is the true origin of what became and stands as the Christian notion of "Salvation" (paying for someone else's sin[s]) through a human sacrifice. Compared to the Hittites, Hebrews were just backwards pagans replicating Sumerian traditions they got second hand.
    "The teraphim were idols, and they were made in the following way. The head of a man, who had to be a first born, was cut off and the hair plucked out. The head was then sprinkled with salt and anointed with oil. Afterwards a little plaque, of copper or gold, was inscribed with the name of an idol and placed under the tongue of the decapitated head. The head was set in a room, candles were lit before it, and people made obeisance. And if any man fell down before it, the head began to speak, and answered all questions that were addressed to it."
    Jewish Encyclopedia, New York, 1901-06, Vol. XII, S.V. "Teraphim"

  6. Although this video is entiltled "How Bronze Age Trade Was Conducted", in fact it seems focused on a very specific history of Mesopotamia and Anatolia. Unusually for a Kings and Generals I found myself losing interest and gave up watching.

  7. Great video, but let me point on some issues in the video, though.

    Some things made me, a spose of an Assyriologist, pain me to see. You draw Sumerians and Amurrites as horse riders – but horse riding and cavalry wasn't yet a thing in the II millennium BCE. The other thing – you show Assyrian trade through carts – which wasn't the case either. Tin and wool was transported in sacks on the backs of mules and donkeys. Then you write contracts on scrolls, whereas you could just as well have placed them on clay tablets.

    Now, it was unusual for the Assyrian expats to bring along their wives and families from Asshur, and it was customary for a trader to have a Hatti wife along with one in Assur. One trader writes to his wife in Asshur, that his local Hatti wife complots against her… but never sends the letter, is it was found in Kanesh.

    Saddle sacks also contained tin that was to be traded for food and commodities along the road.

  8. At the end of a stressful and tiriding day, it is priceless to enjoy time traveling by Kings and Generals. Thank you so much.

  9. the town Biblos is not in anatolya. I think it is in canaan region and it is Byblos. Also Ebla is to far in anatolya, it is in Syria. Please correct this map

  10. pls Make a video about Elamites
    I have seen in some sources that Elamites are extinct
    But in my opinion, there is a strong connection between the current people of Iran nd Elamites
    By looking at the genetic results of Iranians, we can prove it

  11. Assyria:
    Good business climate
    a triangle of three big cities
    center of trade routes
    dry but good at raising cattle
    likes weapons and war
    lean and effective government

    Texas. Assyria is Texas. 🤣

  12. from Peter Joseph 2020 film Interreflections

    Simon: Hierarchies have remained constant throughout recorded civilization.

    John :For perhaps the last 12,000 years, sure.

    John: but you know as well as I do, before the discovery of agriculture, there was no such thing, ninety-nine percent of human

    history has been egalitarian.

    Simon: I said civilization, John, meandering hunter-gatherer tribes chucking spears and eating grubs isn't civilization.

    John: How contemporacist of you, yet 20th century studies of numerous hunter-gatherer tribes, those still surviving in

    remote areas just as they did thousands of years prior, actually show socially rich cultures. Adult life spans not far from ours.

    John: Relatively peaceful

    in balance with nature.

    John: No leaders, no group hierarchy,

    no inequality.

    John: To argue today's society is somehow

    more civilized is dubious at best.

    Simon: Well, then perhaps you can encourage all your enlightened followers to come together and live out their utopian fantasy in the Amazon jungle.

    John: You mean what's left of it ? what hasn't been destroyed by the supposedly advanced culture that's ravaged the natural world

    into total decline in the name of infinite consumption and economic growth ?

    John: and the point here, Simon, is hunter-gatherer cultures are evidence of human variability, variability which contradicts

    your vague biological determinism.

    Simon: John, just because history shows a range of behaviors across time doesn't prove anything.

    Simon: The introduction of agriculture indeed changed the human condition because it triggered a dormant trait in our evolutionary psychology, a trait that wasn't

    expressed before.

    John: How ?

    Simon: By the advent of economic surplus.

    Simon: Resources and goods that could be stored, hoarded, stockpiled, owned, traded, controlled and

    leveraged for personal gain, a phenomenon that was impossible in a hunter-gatherer reality and it was that realization that sparked our now

    omnipresent drive toward dominance and hierarchy.

    John: I didn't know that.

    John: Genetic dormancy of an evolutionary expression, needed an environmental trigger, psychological drive, but then morphs into complex oppressive institutions

    and structures.

    John: Compelling. Intuitive. Plausible.

    john: Too bad it's wrong

    John:All simpleton, pedestrian, bio-deterministic conclusions that are nothing more than elitist projections.

    John: Agriculture did change everything but not because of someone's dormant psychological drive magically triggered

    by economic surplus.

    John: It was about what a society technically required, dramatically shifting incentives and the very nature of human relationships.

    John: Think about it.

    First you need the proper land, water, the right conditions to farm, then creating settlements around those fruitful areas as opposed to foraging.

    Since land quality varies some settlements will prosper due to their geography and some will falter.

    So what happens when a group finds itself with failed crops and no way to survive the winter ?

    They may trade with other groups, building out what we call a market today, giving way to the idea of property and so on.

    Or if they have

    nothing to trade, desperate, they may invade, they may steal, compete, establishing the need for protection, laws, armies, the state institution itself.

    At the same time, people begin to notice the imbalance and power of this new propertied reality, rationalizing the hoarding of wealth

    for the sake of future security.

    Hence the birth of inequity, poverty, socio-economic class.

    John: Simon, every major structural aspect of society today, from ownership to trade to nation states to institutional warfare

    to the competitive ethic to vast economic inequality and power hierarchy was predictable.

    Snowballing ever since.

    Simon :So your theory is if you change the structure of society you change the human condition ? There's no going back, John.

    John: No one's going back, we're going forward.

    John: Humanity has been trapped in this immature stage for far too long, not to mention the sickness manifested by this endless striving towards

    social status is palpable.

    Children, when who asked what they want to be when they grow up say, "Rich and famous."

    How the most wealthy nations, those beacons of supposed success are by far the most mentally ill.

    People don't know who they are, where they're going or what they're doing.

    Lost in a perversion of social image, a spectacle that no longer has any relationship to anything real.


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